To compare the outcomes of trans-abdominal ultrasound (TAS) guided approach and uterine sound-sparing approach (USSA) during copper intrauterine device (IUD) insertion

Study design

A randomised open-label clinical trial (Clinical Trials.Gov: NCT03383432) included multiparous women requesting Copper IUD insertion for birth control were invited to participate. The eligible women were randomised into two groups (44 women in each group); group I (TAS-guided IUD insertion) and group II: USSA. The primary outcome was to measure the satisfaction score of IUD insertion in both methods. Secondary outcomes included the easiness score (ES), the difference in pain scores during IUD insertion, the duration of insertion, and the successful device placement after one week and one month evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound (TVS).


Eighty-eight women were analysed in both groups. The VAS for satisfaction was significantly higher in the USSA group than the TAS-guided group (7.80 ± 1.27 vs. 5.45 ± 1.42, p = .0001). There was significantly lower VAS of pain scores during IUD insertion in the USSA group as compared with the TAS-guided IUD (p = .001). A lower ES and a significantly shorter duration of IUD insertion were also determined among the USSA group (p = .0001).


USSA is associated with higher satisfaction and less pain during insertion than the TAS-guided IUD insertion approach. However, both techniques have optimal intra-uterine device positioning.

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